Urgent action needed on primate protection – Environment – Vietnam News | Politics, Business, Economy, Society, Life, Sports


An individual grey-shanked douc langur (Pygathrix cinerea), one of the world’s 25 Critically Endangered primates, is found living in a forest of Quảng Nam Province. Photo courtesy of Ái Tâm

Since the government’s Decision 628 – an action plan for the protection of the primate species in Việt Nam–  was issued in 2017, a total of 684 endangered douc langurs, including 86 grey-shanked douc langurs (Pygathrix cinerea), one of the world’s 25 Critically Endangered primates, have been captured by rangers and authorities in 80 illegal hunting and wildlife trafficking cases.

However, a report by ENV, an NGO focused on wildlife protection, showed that only 30 per cent of total poaching violations in Việt Nam were discovered, while 70 per cent were unknown, meaning that the number of the langurs hunted in the forest was unclear.

Biologists, conservationists and experts shared the report at a conference on the conservation activities on endangered primates in the central provinces Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Bình Định, Phú Yên, Gia Lai and Kon Tum, and discussed further actions from 2025 to 2030.

They agreed that illegal wildlife hunting, the expansion of coffee and log farms, poor management and planning on the protection of the primates species in the six provinces had been raising threats to the conservation of endangered primates.


A log farm raises dangers of erosion after cutting every five years. The forest area in the region has been narrowed, leaving space for profitable timber, coffee, pepper and rubber plantations. VNS Photo Công Thành 

Expert Hà Thăng Long, head of the representative office of the Frankfurt Zoological Society in Việt Nam, said urgent action was needed for more effective protection of the langurs from becoming extinct in the six provinces where from 2,200 to 2,500 individuals are living in the primary forest or strictly protected nature reserves.

“A strategic management and protection plan on the grey-shanked douc langur in nature outside of the protected special-use forest have been built at the six localities, but there is a lack of funds and poor cooperation in sharing information and data on the existence of the langurs among the six local authorities,” Long said.

“The expansion of log and coffee farms in the primary forest and control on illegal wildlife trafficking and hunting in the core zone of nature reserves have sped up series threats to the existence of the grey-shanked douc langur and other primates species.” 


An expert checks a forest area of Kon Ka Kinh National Park in Gia Lai Province. The park is home to 800 grey-shanked douc langur (Pygathrix cinerea). Photo courtesy of Nguyễn Thị Tịnh 

Long explained the separation of forest areas due to the construction of roads and hydropower plants would raise more dangers to the langurs.

A report from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development unveiled that the central region lost 34,000ha of forest due to illegal logging and land clearance for coffee, rubber and acacia plantations.

The forested area had dropped by 180,000ha, of which 112,000ha had been destroyed or occupied by the expansion of other crop plantations, and 37,000ha for building hydropower plants and roads between 2010-15, the report detailed.

Nguyễn Thị Thu Hiền, a member of the three-monkeys conservation, an NGO, said since the first grey-shanked douc langur individual was rescued in 1995 and then described by German primatologist Tilo Nadler in 1997, 62  Critically Endangered langurs including 26 babies, had been seized from illegal trafficking and hunting cases at the Cúc Phương-based Endangered Primate Rescue Centre.

She said a rescued baby langur meant that its mother or father had been killed.

Hiền said 72 grey-shanked douc langurs were rescued from trafficking and hunting violations in Kon Tum, Quảng Ngãi and Bình Định from 2010 to 2020.

She said more reserves of primate species and a survey on the existence and habitat of the grey-shanked douc langurs in the region were needed.

Gia Lai’s Kon Ka Kinh National Park and Kon Tum’s Kon Plong forest are the two largest homes of Critically Endangered langurs with about 1,300.

Oliver Wearn from Fauna & Flora International (FFI) said a survey from experts and researchers working at FFI in 2015-16 found that Kon Plong forest sheltered from 31 to 35 herds of grey-shanked douc langurs with a population of more than 500.

He said the langurs would be found living in the forest by local communities from 2000, yet a protection plan for the langurs was built at Kon Plong.

He said Critically Endangered langurs had been facing different threats such as forest degradation, habitat separation, log exploitation and road construction.

He said FFI and partners had cooperated with local authorities and forest owners to support technical and sustainable management plans on forests, build surveys on wildlife hunting and trafficking and assess human resources training.

Trần Hữu Vỹ, director of the Centre of Biodiversity Conservation, said residents in Tam Mỹ Tây Commune in Quảng Nam’s Núi Thành District were engaged in the voluntary protection of a herd of grey-shanked douc langurs from 1997.


A poster of a red-shanked douc langur is displayed calling for protection of the primates species in Việt Nam. VNS Photo Công Thành 

The province plans to expand the protected area to 100ha from 30ha and link it with the Phú Ninh protected forest to build a nature reserve in the future.

Lê Khắc Quyết from FFI also said it needed to speed up protection plans for the primates species in Việt Nam, and actions must be urgently made to save the endangered primates from extinction.

He said various plans for primates protection in 2025 had been slowly implemented, including building three primates rescue centres, reducing 70 per cent of hunting cases and 70 per cent of rangers being trained in primate protection.

Experts also said that sustainable management and exploitation of forestry products in forests and promoting education among local communities in the reserves would be seen as positive solutions for the protection of endangered primates species in the central region. VNS


Uganda: Bobi Wine Questions ‘Extra Judicial’ Killing of Terror Suspects

The leader of the National Unity Platform (NUP) Robert Kyagulanyi alias Bobi Wine has said the rampant killing of suspects by security, under the pretext that they were resisting arrest, needs to be scrutinised.

Kyagulanyi made the remarks shortly after the death of Sheikh Abas Muhammed alias Sheikh Kirevu who was “put out of action” on November 18 in Nsangi by security.

Fred Enanga, the police spokesperson cliamed Kirevu was killed as he tried to resist arrest.

While Ugandans understand the importance of keeping o country safe and holding accountable those who harm innocent citizens, Kyagulanyi said he is deeply concerned about the extra-judicial execution of the alleged terror suspects.

Kyagulanyi said in a statement that this has gone on for far too long, adding that it started with suspects in the attack on Gen. Katumba Wamala, and has stretched all the way to the latest victim.

“It is unfortunate that most of the victims are Muslims. Thanks to an unfortunate stereotype the state has created about our brothers and sisters who profess the Islamic religion,”said Kyagulanyi.

Kyagulanyi explained that the Constitution which guarantees the right of every suspect to due process of the law, no matter the gravity of their alleged offence, must be upheld at all costs and in all circumstances.

“Shooting dead suspects in offences of this nature without subjecting them to the legal process simply creates suspicion in the eyes of ordinary citizens about the regime’s complicity in the crimes,”he said.


Mozambique: Two Judges Expelled for Corruption

The Higher Council of the Judicial Magistracy (CSMJ), the regulatory body for the law courts, has expelled two judges from the profession for corrupt behaviour, reports “Carta De Moçambique” on 7 January.

The best-known case, decided by the CSMJ at a plenary session held in late December in the southern resort of Ponta de Ouro, concerned Rui Dauane of the Maputo City Court, whom the CSMJ sacked and forced into compulsory retirement.

He was accused of lack of seriousness and honesty and of violating the ethical duties expected of a judge. Dauane was involved in several controversial cases, but the most serious was his release of Edith D’Compta da Camara Cylindo. She was accused of participating in the kidnapping of businesspeople in 2017, but Dauane set her free. According to the CSMJ, he ignored the evidence against her and ordered her release in violation of the Penal Procedural Code. Attempts to re-arrest her so that she could face charges of money laundering were foiled because once released she could not be located.

Cylindo was eventually brought to trial in a separate court, the Maputo provincial court, sitting in Matola, for her involvement in the assassination in 2016 of prominent prosecutor Marcelino Vilanculos.

The prosecution argued that she provided the death squad with information on the movements of Vilanculos. Not only did she follow the prosecutor’s car, but she also photographed Vilanculos and gave the photos to the man who led the death squad, Jose Ali Coutinho. According to the prosecution, after the murder, Coutinho paid Cylindo 500,000 meticais (about US$8,400 at the exchange rate of the time).

Initially, Cylindo was acquitted for lack of evidence tying her to the killing. But the prosecution appealed against Cylindo’s acquittal – and won. The appeals court threw out the original verdict and sentenced Cylindo to 22 years imprisonment. Her behaviour, the court found, had facilitated the murder. She had participated in an act that contributed directly to the preparation and execution of the crime.

The CSMJ also expelled from the judicial profession Acacio Mitalage, a judge in the Matutuine district court in Maputo province. He was accused of stealing over 3.7 million meticais (about US$58,000 at the current exchange rate) from the funds of the Matutuine court.

In addition to expelling Mitalage, the CSMJ has remitted the case to the Public Prosecutor’s Office, for criminal proceedings against him.


South Sudan – Summary Executions in North

Nairobi — Investigate Officials and Security Forces; End Killings, Other Abuses in Warrap State

South Sudanese security forces summarily executed at least eight suspected criminals, including two children, as part of their anti-crime campaign in Warrap state, Human Rights watch said today. The executions apparently were carried out on the orders of Governor Aleu Ayieny Aleu. South Sudanese authorities should immediately halt and ensure justice for the unlawful killings, which constitute serious violations of international law.

Warrap state, in northern South Sudan, has perennially experienced violence linked to intercommunal conflict and cattle raiding since the country’s independence in 2011. During 2020, there was an escalation in violence against civilians, including killings, sexual violence, and abductions as political elites manipulated local rivalries. President Salva Kiir appointed Governor Aleu in January with a mandate, among other things, to curb violence and crime.

“If Governor Aleu authorized summary killings instead of legal proceedings against suspected criminals, he is abusing his power and undermining the rule of law,” said Nyagoah Tut Pur, South Sudan researcher at Human Rights Watch. “President Kiir should ensure credible and transparent investigations into these serious violations of the right to life, bring those responsible to account and ensure compensation for the victims’ families.”

Between June 4 and June 25, 2021, Human Rights Watch interviewed eight witnesses and relatives of victims of state security forces’ violations in Warrap state, as well as seven lawyers, activists, and journalists with knowledge of the killings. Interviews were conducted by telephone and secure messaging applications in English and, using an interpreter, in Thuuk Muonyjang(Dinka/Jieng dialect). Human Rights Watch also reviewed reports by the United Nations, community groups, and the local media as well as videos posted on social media platforms.

Credible sources informed Human Rights Watch that, between April and June, on the governor’s orders, security forces executed at least 21 people accused of murder, theft, and other offenses, including in the towns of Kuajok, Romic, Alabek, Twic, Aliek, and Warrap. Human Rights Watch verified eight killings in Kuajok and Nyang Akoch. The UN Mission in South Sudan also documented executions of 29 males in the state, including boys and elderly men.

Government and media sources said that after becoming governor, Aleu toured Warrap state for months, meeting with community members, state and county authorities, and security forces, as part of his security, peace, and reconciliation strategy. He however encouraged violence in some instances. A YouTube video posted on March 10 shows Governor Aleu, in military fatigues, briefing a new army battalion known as the “Tuek Tuek” in Tonj North County briefing them on his security strategy and encouraging violence.

“What will you do when there are thieves and criminals killing people and stealing their property?” he said, addressing the soldiers in Thuuk Muonyjang.”Just like tuek tuek[a woodpecker] cuts into trees, you can do the same to a human and know you will all be promoted…Are you going to fail in your mission?”

Witnesses told Human Rights Watch that local authorities in Nyang Akoch village, in Tonj North, detained four people between April 6 and 11. Six witnesses said that the governor visited the village on April 11, along with security forces, arrested a fifth person, and ordered the execution of all five by firing squad. The victims were two boys, ages 14 and 17, andthree men.

“The governor came in the morning with many soldiers, and we saw our children being thrown up in the car with soldiers chasing people away and making noise,” said a family member of one victim. Three witnesses to the executions told the victims’ relatives that their loved ones were shot in a place called Keet. In a move to silence criticism, the governor is pursuing criminal defamation charges against a lawyer originally from the region who spoke about the executions on Voice of America.

On April 26, in Kuajok, the state capital, soldiers executed by firing squad three men accused of murdering a woman and injuring her child. Witnesses, as well as a local official who was not authorized to speak on the record, said that the three had confessed and that community members and traditional chiefs demanded the killings to calm tensions and prevent violence between the communities of the alleged killers and victims.

Governor Aleu, who had opened a local peace conference that day, gave permission for the killings based on the community’s demands, a local official said. Human Rights Watch also reviewed Facebook posts showing that the governor opened the meeting on April 26and hosted a farewell gathering for chiefs there on April 28.

Customary chiefs govern at local levels, including with customary courts, acting as intermediaries between the national government and communities. Chiefs have the authority to make arrests but must hand suspects over to the police “without unnecessary delay,” and national law enforcement generally carry out the chiefs’ and their courts’ decisions on petty criminal and civil matters.

However, customary chiefs have no legal authority over murder cases and the proceedings and judgments from customary courts routinely contradict human rights principles. By allowing customary authorities to sanction killings, the state authorities are violating domestic criminal laws and international human rights law, ranging from the rights to a fair trial and due process, to their right to life.

On July 19 Human Rights Watch shared a written summary of research findings with Governor Aleu and requested government response. The government did not respond.

In July 2020 President Kiir warned newly appointed governors that he would fire them if they did not address violence in their states. Kiir has since dismissed the governor of Lakes state and the chief administrator for Ruweng administrative area. Human Rights Watch believes this pressure may have contributed to Warrap authorities’ heavy-handed methods.

Government and UN sources said that the limited capacity of the state police and judiciary contributes to the Warrap governor’s hard line and abusive approach. The government sources noted that the local police are poorly resourced and frequently outgunned by armed civilians.

Kiir should mandate that anti-crime campaigns respect human rights and publicly announce that human rights violators will be held accountable. South Sudanese authorities, with international assistance and cooperation as necessary, should develop the police and judiciary’s ability to deal effectively with intercommunal violence, other crimes, and their punishment.

“These killings have occurred within a context of systemic abuses -committed with impunity -by security forces,” Pur said. “President Kiir needs to end these abuses and give South Sudanese reason to believe that, after 10 years of independence, they will finally live by the rule of law.”

For further details about the executions, please see below.

Violence in Warrap State

Warrap state is home to various ethnicities: the Dinka (or Jieng), the country’s largest ethnic group; the Jurchol and Jur Manager groups of the Luo; and the Bongo. Its six counties are Gogrial East, Gogrial West, Tonj East, Tonj North, Tonj South, and Twic.

The country’s civil war, from 2013 to 2018, did not significantly affect Warrap state but had an impact on the dynamics of local violence and the militarization of communities. After the civil war began, many soldiers defected to armed opposition groups. Consequently, the army and National Security Service (NSS) forcibly and voluntarily recruited Dinka youth and children from Warrap, Lakes, Northern Bar El Ghazal, and Western Bar El Ghazal states to bolster their numbers from groups deemed loyal to the government. This militia of mostly untrained youth and cattle keepers was responsible for heinous wartime abuses. Even after the peace deal of 2018, the government continued to recruit youth and children, particularly from Warrap state. Government forces are also accused of responsibility for abductions, torture, and arbitrary detentions during 2020.

The security situation deteriorated when a governance vacuum emerged after President Kiir dissolved the whole government in February 2020 and did not appoint new state governors until July. Violence surged in Warrap and other states, leading to killings and displacement.

Military and political leaders from Warrap state fueled the animosity and violence between Dinka groups and clans, including by supplying opposing factions with personnel and weapons. The traditional violence often over cattle raiding or land, water, and border disputes or revenge killings; and enhanced by the presence and uncontrolled use of small arms and light weapons, turned into militarized violence sponsored by elites.

Between April and December 2020, in Tonj North, the fighting between Dinka sections killed hundreds of people, burned homes, and displaced tens of thousands of civilians. In June and July, President Kiir appointed two committees to address the violence in Tonj North, but these efforts failed. By December, Tonj East, Tonj North, and Tonj South (Greater Tonj) began facing catastrophic food insecurity, fueling further violence.

As documented by local media, the UN Panel of Experts on South Sudan, and the Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan the government’s disarmament campaign in Warrap in 2020 was characterized by violence and human rights violations and became another source of violence. In Romich town, Tonj East, at least 127 people were killed during clashes between army and NSS disarmament forces and armed youth on August 8 and 9, 2020.

On June 25, 2021, Vice President Wanni Igga announced that 40,000 newly trained soldiers would be deployed to disarm civilians. Two local officials also told Human Rights Watch that Governor Aleu and his counterparts in Lakes and Northern Bar El Ghazal would roll out disarmament campaigns in the following months.

President Kiir replaced Bona Palek Biar, who had been governor of Warrap for just under seven months, with Aleu on January 28, 2021. The self-described “right-hand man of the president” received a strict mandate to end the violence and threatened to immediately and severely punish those responsible for intercommunal violence and cattle rustling.

Just days after Aleu’s appointment, between January 31 and February 2, community leaders, intellectuals and chiefs from Greater Tonj held a peace conference in Juba, which the new governor and other state officials attended. At the conference, community representatives signed a declaration, seen by Human Rights Watch, that among other things, recommended “imposing death penalty through a fire squad” on criminals.

International human rights standards support abolition of the death penalty as a form of punishment, and while international law permits the penalty of death in very limited circumstances, it may only be applied to the most serious crimes and following absolute strict due process. South Sudan is a party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and is limited by art. 6(2) as to when, if ever, it can legitimately impose the death penalty. Human Rights Watch opposes the death penalty as a uniquely cruel and irreversible punishment in all circumstances.

While much of the violence has subsided since Aleu’s appointment, sporadic attacks and counterattacks between communities continue. On July 8 and 9 for instance, more than 5,000 people were displaced, shelters burned, schools, churches, and health centers vandalized, and a World Food Program warehouse looted following violence between armed youth from opposing Dinka sections in Marial Lou, Tonj North.

Extrajudicial Executions, Other Rights Violations

Human Rights Watch independently verified eight killings: three in Kuajok and five in Nyang Akoch, Majok payam(the administrative division below counties), Tonj North.

Torture, Ill Treatment, Extrajudicial Execution of 3 Men, 2 Boys in Nyang Akoch Village

On April 3, armed youth shot at a vehicle traveling on the Wau-Tonj Road in Majok payam, Tonj North, killing one passenger. They also injured another on the arm with a spear. Payam authorities detained four suspects between April 6 and their execution on April 11: Achuil Kuol Bol, a 17-year-old cattle keeper; Madut Akol Agok, a cattle keeper in his 30s; Deng Bol Kuot, a 27-year-old health and nutrition volunteer at a local organization; and Majok Deng Mabior, a 14-year-old student.

The detentions were not judicially authorized, the detainees were not held in a lawful detention center, and judicial authorities did not investigate the allegations. Community members and witnesses said that the detainees were kept in a thatched grass house, which served as a prison, under the orders of the executive chief of Majok payam and that the authorities tortured and ill-treated them, including with corporal punishment and prolonged chaining.

International and African human rights law, as well as South Sudanese law, prohibit in all circumstances and at all times cruel and degrading punishment or disciplinary measures, and any inhumane treatment of detainees. Under South Sudanese law, no child under 16 may be sentenced to prison and no one under 18 may be subjected to corporal punishment or group punishment by chiefs or anyone in any place or institution, or be sentenced to death.

Payam authorities arrested Mabior, 14, a student at Majok Primary School, on April 6 and detained him at the payam headquarters until April 11. A relative who had visited him said they needed to bribe the authorities to give Mabior food and water.

Bol’s family members said that payam authorities had initially arrested his 87-year-old father as a proxy when they could not find the 17-year-old boy. When Bol presented himself to the authorities on April 7, he was detained.

Payam authorities arrested Kuot at his home on April 7.

On April 8, authorities sent Agok’s cousin to fetch him for allegedly participating in the April 3 shooting. Agok was allowed to go home that day, but he reported to the administrators’ office on April 9 and was detained. One witness said that officers tied him to a tree and severely beat him.

On April 11, Governor Aleu, accompanied by state officials and about 90 security officers, arrived in Nyang Akoch from Pagol. Six witnesses who attended the welcome ceremony said that the governor asked for the detainees.

One witness said he saw and overheard the governor speak to two chiefs in a small office and say, “I want the prisoners,” before taking the prisoners from the tukulto the payam headquarters.

“What I saw was a large army that came and tied the suspects’ eyes and hands and threw them on the pickup car,” said another witness. “And soldiers sat on them as they drove away … with two chiefs.”

Another witness confirmed that the five suspects were blindfolded and tied. He said their eyes were covered by pieces of one victims’ ripped t-shirt and their hands were tied behind their backs.

That same day, the governor’s security officers arrested Lueeth Chol Daam, a 76-year-old spiritual leader, purportedly for instigating youth to commit violence. One witness said:

“He was found [by soldiers] in his house, in an area that was deserted. His family and others had fled the area during the last violence in March, and he was left behind. When there is fighting, people do not kill elders and women. So, he did not run.”

Family members and witnesses said a firing squad executed these three men and two boys on April 11 at about 6 p.m. in Keet, Majok payam. Two chiefs from the community that lost the passenger on the April 3 shooting attended the execution. One witness hid nearby and saw approximately 15 soldiers make the five men and boys lie face down next to each other, then shot them dead.

A credible source said that the next day, the relatives of Bol, Kuot, and Mabior collected and buried their bodies at their homes. Family members of Agok and Daamcould not be located, so community members buried them near the site of the shooting.

A local chief in Nyang Akoch said that the killings created an atmosphere of fear:

“We had policies that kept the law in place, but now the law has been taken into personal hands. Now, people are living in fear and when they see a lot of cars, some people run for safety because they think they will be killed.”

Extrajudicial Execution of 3 Men in Kuajok Town

On April 26, 33 local chiefs from Greater Tonj, Gogrial, and Twic counties gathered at a peace conference in Kuajok and sanctioned the execution of three men accused of killing Adut Agool Makech on April 14, when she was in her car with her four children. One of the children was injured by gunfire.

A local official who attended the peace conference explained why the community had wanted the Makech’s killers executed:

“The three men confessed. Elders and representatives from the clan said this is what they have agreed, and they signed a document to sanction it. [They agreed] that the persons must be killed to stop the communities from fighting.”

On April 26 a firing squad of soldiers shot and killed the three men near a river, apparently on the governors’ orders.

Arbitrary Arrest, Detention of Lawyer

Early on June 24 a joint force of 22 soldiers and police arrested Achuil Malei, a lawyer and a former Minister in Defunct Tonj State, at his home in the Gudele neighborhood of Juba and accompanied him as he drove to northern police division headquarters in Juba with a colleague. Voice of America’s South Sudan in Focus radio program had interviewed Malei, who is originally from Tonj North on April 14 about the extrajudicial executions in Nyang Akoch.

A June 11 arrest warrant issued by Governor Aleu’s legal adviser, seen by Human Rights Watch, charged Malei with defamation under section 289 of the Penal Code Act. The warrant required Juba police to hand him over to criminal investigators in Kuajok.

Following a petition from Malei’s lawyer, the national justice and constitutional affairs minister issued a directive on June 25 against Malei’s transfer to Kuajok, and ordered on July 14 that the case be heard in Juba. Although Malei has been released on bail, he is required by police to report to the station every morning and evening.

Accountability Deficit

Impunity is pervasive in South Sudan due to the government’s underinvestment in, and a lack of independence of, the judicial system. Even in the rare instances when judicial authorities have acted in the interest of justice, the executive branch and security forces have frustrated their efforts.

For example, on August 19, 2020, the Warrap state prosecutor issued an arrest warrant for Victor Atem Atem, the former governor of the now-defunct Gogrial state, Mayar Deng, and Achuk Yai accusing the three of joint criminal acts of murder and robbery. Family members of 35 men accused of involvement in intercommunal killings and crimes related to cattle raiding during the state of emergency in the state in 2017 said the former governor ordered the extrajudicial executions of the 35 men. According to lawyers familiar with the case, none of the suspects have been arrested.